Need for waste management essay
Table 3. Generation of municipal solid waste in major urban areas in ……………………. Table 4. Methods of municipal solid waste disposal in Malaysia ………………………… Causes of waste in different project phases ……………………………………….. Generation of construction waste and predicted amounts in ……………………..
Summary of construction waste generation rates at sites A, B and C ………….. Dumpsite for municipal solid waste …………………………………………………….. Disposal of construction waste ………………………………………………………….. Wood for formwork …………………………………………………………………… Broken bricks that have been discarded …………………………………………… RCC reinforcement poorly stored …………………………………………………… Municipal, agricultural, mining and construction are some such sectors. Some governments have already formulated policies that help protect the environment but in reality only national capital cities have begun implementing them.
Many cities still find it difficult to manage produced waste due to shortcomings in financial support, technical capability, adequate knowledge and public participation. The result is major environmental damage due to improper solid waste disposal techniques.
Not only is this method of disposal harmful to the environment, obtaining land for such disposal sites also comes at a very high cost. Moreover, the public are unwilling to accept landfill sites near to their location due to the many inconveniences caused such as reduction in values of housing etc.
While addressing these two types of solid waste, their methods of disposal and the impact made on the environment too will be discussed. Furthermore, the essay also provides sustainable solutions for the management of solid waste. Food waste, paper, plastic, metal and glass are some types of municipal solid waste. As indicated, high amounts of organic waste is produced by these nations and their respective cities in particular the more urbanized cities. Table 2 highlights the composition of waste generated in Malaysia for the years Source: Mohd.
And like many other countries its urban population generates a great amount of municipal solid waste Jalil, This increase in municipal solid waste generation is due to the rapid urbanization, increase in income and in turn, increase in consumption rates. Table 3 shows the amount of waste generated in some urban areas of Malaysia from the years With the increase in amounts of solid waste generated around South East Asia including Malaysia, concerning questions regarding where all this municipal solid waste is sent to and the impact it has on the environment are brought to mind.
Pinang Sembilan Source: Jalil , p. It has been used for many years as it is one of the cheapest means of disposal and easiest in terms of the large quantity of inorganic waste produced by these countries. This results in leachate leaking through the waste and contamination of ground water.
Furthermore decomposing waste turns toxic and produces methane gas that is harmful to the air Smith, It is true however, that governments are starting to develop 7.
Developments in waste management
One being that they are located too far from generators as opposed to open landfills, and the other being that there are no proper ways to transport the waste to such far off locations and as a result, additional cost for transportation is incurred. The result is that waste gets dumped into public areas such as rivers and roadways. Another method of disposal common to these countries is incineration. Despite this, there is much concern over the use of incineration as a disposal technique.
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Composting is a technique that requires less technology to be carried out. However, governments like Malaysia are still in favour of this particular method of disposal. Recycling is another eco-friendly method used by high income countries like Singapore. About Instead, one bag is used for all types of solid waste. Once waste is collected from homes, offices or other industries, the public are unaware of how it is being disposed. Waste is transported in collection vehicles to transfer stations and loaded into compacting containers for the distant journey to landfills Solid Waste Management-Issues and Challenges in Asia, This is where the major problem lies, for Malaysia is facing serious landfill problems.
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There are concerns regarding shortage and over- usage of landfills, poor management etc. During recent times, Malaysia has been committed to minimizing waste and has begun implementing methods of organized management and disposal. Recycling has been given priority but very little is being done to reuse and reduce waste generated. The government re-launched the national recycling campaign in December with the second phase being implemented in November two years later.
Each time the participation of local authorities increased. Table 4 shows the methods of municipal solid waste treatment since in Malaysia and a proposed target of waste disposed by the year What is very promising to note is the use of recycling as a disposal method, for the impacts caused to the environment are minimal in comparison to methods like incineration which can be of risk. However, in order to move forward at a better pace, the number of recycling industries must also increase.
Shafii, continues stating that South East Asian countries have their own definition of construction waste in terms of components of construction waste in their respective construction industries. Construction and demolition activities generate large quantities of solid waste. This mainly occurs in areas where urbanization is on the rise Shan, This type of waste is generated 9. Shafii, states that the construction industry makes a significant negative impact on the environment.
Table 5 lists some of the phases in projects where construction waste is likely generated. Osman, Mohd. Table 6 shows the amount of construction waste generated per day from the year to the amounts predicted to be produced in the year It can be observed that since there is an increment in the generation of construction waste, its potential effect on the environment would also be magnified.
Waste Management And Recycling Environmental Sciences Essay
Osman et al. Shown below is a summary of the construction waste generated at the 3 sites. They are labelled as Sites A, B and C, Generation of construction waste covers almost every construction stage. Common causes of construction waste generation observed on the studied sites are off cuts from cutting materials to desired length, improper handling, stacking and storage, end of life cycles, spillage and leftover materials. In most South East Asian countries in particular urban cities, the 3R principles have been implemented in the management of construction waste.
There is awareness raised by respective governments for their countries. These 3R practices focus on technology, management and the involvement of key organizations. However, these South East Asian nations are still very much in the process of development in terms of technology. On the aspect of Management, Singapore has shown good demonstration of its 3R practices.
Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam are still in the process of forming guidelines in terms of management Shafii, Furthermore, there was also an instance where around 30 tons of construction waste was illegally dumped into a mangrove swamp in Malacca. Nagapan et al. Again, such illegal cases are prevalent due to the distance of the landfill site from the project location.
Transportation costs are avoided and profits maximized due to such illegal actions.
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Case Studies A survey was conducted to focus on the amounts of construction waste generated at three sites in the Batu Pahat District. A copy of this case study can be found in Appendix A. Two of these sites were residential projects while the other was an administration block consisting of two swimming pools. After observing and collecting data for a few months the types and amounts of construction waste generated were obtained. The second highest was bricks followed by packaging material. The project managers at these sites regarded poor handling and management of materials as the one of main causes for such amounts of waste to be produced.
Furthermore they also said that ordering of construction materials is important in terms of expenditure and the amounts that end up not being used. Therefore, ordering of the correct quantity of materials is vital. Workers In terms of waste management strategy, attention was paid to on-site sorting, recycling and reusing of only certain construction materials. However, sites A and B preferred to burn the rest of their waste material which makes a negative impact on the environment.
An Introduction to Solid Waste Management
Site C made use of another temporary dumpsite to dispose of its unwanted waste. The most concerning factor amongst all was that site C also made use of an illegal dumping site to dispose its soil waste which again reveals the problems Malaysia faces with illegal dumping. The study concluded that these methods used are not sustainable and cause negative impacts on the environment. In addition to the case study given in Appendix A, a construction site was also visited and an interview was conducted with the contractor in order to get a better understanding of how construction waste is handled.
The site, Desa Villa Hills consists of units all of which are at different levels of construction. Waste components found on site were earth excavates, granules, cement, timber, iron and bricks. Again, timber was the main component among the waste materials produced. According to the interview as given in Appendix B, timber is used in formwork and to make temporary structures and in doing so can be later dismantled and reused again.